Ambala district at a Glance
According to the 2011 census, Ambala district had a population of 1,128,350. In terms of population, It ranks 410th out of a total of 640 in India.
1569 Sq Km
Population growth rate
No. of Municipalities
No. of Blocks
No. of Villages
|Area||1569 Sq Km|
|Population growth rate
|No. of Municipalities||4|
|No. of Blocks||6|
|No. of Villages||408|
Ambala district is one of the 22 districts of Haryana state with Ambala town as the administrative headquarters. Ambala district lies on the North-Eastern edge of Haryana and shares borders with state of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh.
Haryana has 6 administrative divisions, 22 districts, 73 sub-divisions, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 community development blocks, 154 cities and towns, 7356 villages, and 6212 villages panchayats.
6 Divisions in Harayana are as follows.Out of these divisions Ambala district is a part of Ambala Division.
Lok Sabha constituency has maximum strength of the House is 552 members (now 550 after 104th Constitution Amendment article 331 is null by parliament) – 530 members to represent the States, 20 members to represent the Union Territories, and 2 members to be nominated by the President from the Anglo-Indian Community. At present, the strength of the House is 543. Out of these 543, Ambala district falls under the Ambala Lok Sabha constituency which is reserved for the Scheduled Caste candidate only.
Amabala district has four Vidhan Sabha constituencies under Ambala Lok Sabha constituency as follows
- Ambala City
- Ambala Cantt
- Mulana and
Administration of this district falls under the Ambala division and law and order falls under the Ambaa
History of Ambala
The district has also yielded Coins of Indo Parthian Gondophernes and a coin of Mahakshtrapa Rajuvala (from Ambala and Nariangarh). At some places Kushan Bricks have also been found which justify the conclusion that this district was included in the Kushana empire. According to Dr.R.C. Majumdar the region between Lahore and Karnal formed a part of Samudra Gupta empire . This evidence is supported by Mehrauli Pillar Inscription and silver coins found at various places.The region formed an integral part of nearly all the premier ruling dynasties of India. In 7th Century it was a part of Sukantha Janpada of puspabhuti of Thanesar. Some foreign sources specially those of Chinese pilgrimage Hiven Tsang who visited during Harsha regime show that this District was also under some influence of Buddhism . The district further witnessed the Imperial ambition of Yaso Verman of Kanauj and laladitya. After the invasion of Mohammed Ghaznavi, Charuhaus brought it under their control. The Topara Pillar stands Testimony of this fact. Finally the Muslims under took the district after the defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan in the second Battle of Terrain 1192. Between 9th to12th century this district retained its importance as a centre of religious pilgrimage. The discovery of image of lords at several places suggests existence of beautiful temples which were probably destroyed during Muslim invasions.
Under the Muslims, district formed a part of Kutab-Bin-Abak Empire. The region also witnessed the invasion of Timur. In 1450 Bahlol Lodhi the then governor of Punjab brought the area under his Sway till Babur’s invasion in 1526. Akbar’s reign was full of events in Din-E-Akbari .It is mentioned that mahals of Ambala to be part of Sirhind of Delhi suba. After the Aurangjeb death the political position and various forces rose in opposition to the Empire. Banda Bahudar, a disciple of Guru Gobind Singh launched a fierce attack on Ambala area (1709-10) however he lost to Mughals at Sadhaura in 1710. After Banda ,Khidmat, a Mughal official governed the Ambala Terrritory till 1739. When Nadir Shah’s invasion a dark period followed with the division of Ambala in to small principalities Abdali held this area from 1757 onwards. The restive sikhs in 1763 came in possession of this territory after slaying Abdalis Governor. In short, during medieval age this reign was full of Political activities and Turmoil’s.
The advent of British Rule Marked the growth of Sikh Power in this region and the consequent destruction by British in 1805. The British in order to increase their sway beyond Yamuna took the Chiefs in Ambala under their protection. The British Controlled the affairs of all states in the region in a most effective manner through the political agency at Ambala . In 1845, the Sikh chief showed passive obstruction or open hostility to the British. The result was the police jurisdiction of most of the chief as well as transit and custom duty were abolished and a commutation was accepted for the personal service of the chief of his contingent. The political agency of Ambala was transformed into Commissionership under the commissioner of the cis-Satluj states. By 1846 several chiefships had lapsed owing to their failure to have male heirs and the so called break down of administrative machinery. The British acquired strips of territory around Ambala district in 1847. In 1849, Punjab was annexed and then it was declared that expect Buria and Kalsia all chiefs would cease to hold sovereign powers.
The Revolt of 1857
The Ambala district played a significant role in uprising of 1857. Ambala was a military depot of great Importance then. Sham Singh ,a sepoy of the 5th Native infantry told Forsyth, the then Deputy Commissioner Ambala, in the end of April 1857, that a general rising of the Sepoys would take place in the beginning of May. He was proved Correct at approximately 9 A.M.on Sunday 10th May 1857 an Indian regiment the 60th Native Infantry rose in open revolt at Ambala followed by 5th native infantry at 12 noon but the Britsh were too alert and suppressed the revolt. Like the sepoys, the civil population was also badly affected . Indeed everyone among them irrespective of their caste , creed and religion stood against Britishers and played a significant Role in Struggle.
Rise of National Awakening
For a long time after the uprising the people of Haryana kept in suffering . On account of their opposition and indifference towards the British in the crisis but soon various changes swept in the country as well as the region as the result , the people of Ambala were influenced and became politically awakened and enlightened . Some organizations took the task of reformation . The organizations which rendered services in this district are as follows.
|Year||Name of Organization||Aims and Objectives|
|1883||Arya Samaj Ambala Cantonment||Socio-Religious reforms of Hindus|
|1884||Anjunam-Rifah-i-Am,Ambala City||Socio-political awakening of India|
|1886||Anjuman-islamiya ,Ambala City||Bettering Muslim ‘lot|
|1886||Singh Sabha,Ambala City||Reforming sikh religion|
|1886||Central National Mohamedans Association Ambala City||Bettering Muslim lot|
|1888||Anjuman -Islamiya,Ambala Cantoment||Bettering Muslims’ lot|
|1888||Singh Sabha Ambala Cantoment||Reforming Sikh religion|
|1890||Arya Samaj,Ambala City||Socio-religious reform of Hindus|
|1896||Sanatan Dharam Sabha Ambala Cantonment||Hindu revivalism|
During this period the people also made efforts to establish re-organization at national level. Lala Murli Dhar of Ambala (1820-1924) was one of the founding fathers of Indian National Congress at Bombay in 1885. Later on during early twentieth century Indian National Congress organization spread its roots at various places in Ambala District.
The people of Ambala helped government in its war efforts. The village peasants gave recruits to Army but in the period following the first world war they were rendered jobless and a feeling of discontentment creeped into them. Mahatma Gandhi found a great opportunity and launched an all India agitation in 1919.The Post war Scenario witnessed a great deal of Political activity in Ambala District.Like in other parts of India, people opposed Rowllatt Bills. The people over here opposed the Bills and passed resolution condemning the government action. After the arrest of Mahatma Gandhi and Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy some voilent disturbances also took place at number of places.The burning of the office of a military regiment 1/34 Sikh Pioneer at Ambala Cantonment was indeed very serious. The people contributed shoulder to shoulder with Gandhi’s Non Co-operation movement. But in 1922, the Movement was withdrawn as a result of Chauri-Chaura Incident.
Rise of National Awakening
In 1930, an all India civil-disobedience Movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi which spread throughout the nation and Ambala was no exception. On April 6th,1930, a huge procession marched through the main streets of the city and leaders made soul-stirring speeches. At this stage Naujawan Bharat Sabha , a progressive leftist Movement was established. The Sabha had its Base in the villages and also among the works in Ambala. The Swadeshi Movement also gained momentum at this time. The merchants of Ambala took a vow not to sell foreign clothes and Bar association passed a resolution to wear Khadi. Even ladies came forward on 26th April 1920, and women volunteers prepared salt in Anaj Mandi Ambala. The auctioned salt fetched 63/- ( sixty three Rupees). The struggle went on unabated except for a brief halt in 1931 till 1933, when Mahatma Gandhi withdrew it and turned it into an individual Satyagrah. However , it did not make any impressive impact on the people and the district offered only 171 arrests during the wake of individual Satyagraha Movement in 1941.
Quit India Movement
The situation changed in 1942, when the Quit India Movement was launched. The Congress was declared as unlawful. The people of Ambala were not disheartened and gave a tough fight to the Britishers. There were violent activities also. There were lathi charges at about two dozen occasions and about 298 persons were arrested. The Movement in 1944 was as a result of arrest of leaders and repressive measures of government.The people of Ambala fought overseas also in the Indian National Army under one of the inspiring leadership of Subash Chander Bose.To sum up, the people of Ambala District made a great sacrifice like their counter parts in the other parts of the country . The achievement of Independence on August 15,1947 was celebrated in the district with migration of population from both sides on account of the partition of the country.This survey of the pre-independence and historical events indicates that the Ambala District nearly always remained a part of the main stream of the Indian History.
As per ancient Indian history, Aryan people had resided at vill. saphera (ambala) at some point in time. There was a very popular place called saphera(killer saphera) which was the sangwan country’s capital at that time. Ambala was given the status of a district in 1847.
The Ambala Cantonment was established in 1843 after the British abandoned its cantonment at saphera, following the malaria epidemic of 1841-42. The cantonment houses the ‘2 Corps’ one of the three Strike Corps of the Indian Army and is of immense strategic importance. Grand Trunk Road, at Ambala Cantonment, during British Raj
Ambala was constituted as a district in 1847, and was formed by merging the jagir estates of hitherto independent chieftains whose territories had lapsed or had been confiscated by the British Indian Government. In its 160 years of existence as a district, Ambala has witnessed many changes in its boundaries. In its heyday the district boundaries extended across tehsils of Ambala, saphera, Jagadhri, Pipli, Kharar, Mohali, Ropar and Nalagarh. Kalka-cum-Kurari State, Pinjore, Manimajra, Kasauli & Sanawar were also merged into the district at different points of time.
Ambala Air Force Base is one of the oldest and largest airbases that were inherited from the British by the IAF. It was from this airbase that Spitfires and Harvards flown by Instructors of the Advanced Flying Training School took part in the 1947-48 Kashmir Operations. Subsequently, Ambala was the front line airfield for many years. It was home to various aircraft that were inducted into the Indian Air Force. Vampires, Ouragans, Hunters, etc. all flew from this base. The airbase was briefly attacked in 1965 by Pakistan Air Force’s B-57 bombers. Today, the Airbase houses the ‘7 Wing’ with squadrons of Jaguars and MiG-21 Bisons. Ambala airfield has a war memorial called jatt di pasand dedicated to all aircrew who lost their lives in times of war and peace flying missions from the airfield
Ambala is a divisional headquarters of the Northern Railway Zone and is an important railway junction. The Ambala Cantonment railway station was founded on the junction of the Delhi-Kalka and Ludhiana-Saharanpur lines. The historic Delhi-Ambala-Kalka railway line dates back to 1889 while the Ludhiana-Saharanpur line was built in 1870. Situated 200 km north of Delhi, this town is extremely well connected by the rail and road network. Ambala is a major railway junction. It has 7 railway platforms and a daily passage of about 250 trains.
- Lakhnaur Sahib
- Panjokhra Sahib Gurudwara
- Manji Sahib Gurudwara
- Ambika Mata Temple